Language

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

This page provides information on the development of language skills in children in grades Kindergarten through Grade 2.  The skills listed occur in typical language development and there is a wide range of typical development (+ or - 6 months is typical).  Theses milestones are presented as a guide to inform parents of what to expect for a child between the ages of 5 and 8 years of age.  Most of the developmental norms are taken from Linguisystems Guide to Communication Milestones which provides the research base for these norms.

KINDERGARTEN Through GRADE 2

Grammar & Syntax Development

Child is able to use the following correctly:
  • Pronouns
  • "ing" on the ends of verbs
  • Plural -s
  • Possessive -s
  • Past Tense Verbs
  • Third Person Singular (i.e. He runs)
  • Articles (i.e. the cat, a tree)
  • Conjunction "and"
  • Helping Verbs (have/has, do/does, is/are)

Questions

  • Answers a variety of questions including yes/no, what, who, where, why, how, when and how many.
  • Asks what, where, when, how, whose and one word why questions.
  • Asks is questions

Vocabulary

Child should have a vocabulary of 2200-7000+ words:
  • Can use many descriptive words spontaneously
  • Knows common opposites
  • Can name items in a category
  • Can name a category given items
  • Can name synonyms (small, tiny, little)
  • Can define common objects in terms of use
Concepts
  • Understands opposite concepts
  • Understands left/right
  • Understands time and number concepts 
  • Can describe how things are the same and different
  • Uses adjectives for describing
  • Uses comparative and superlatives (big, bigger, biggest)
  • Understands time concepts of yesterday, today, tomorrow, first, then, next, days of the week
  • Uses adverb concepts backward and forward
  • Uses prepositions through, nearest, corner, middle
  • Names ordinal numbers such as first, second, third
  • Identifies positional concepts first, middle, last

Literacy

Kindergarten
  • Recognizes letters and letter sounds
  • Understands that print is read left to right and top to bottom
  • Retells simple stories
  • Begins to write letters and some words heard frequently
  • Begins to write stories with some readable parts with some help
  • Tries to spell words when writing
  • Understands that spoken words are made up of sounds
  • Begins to recognize sight words
  • Identifies and writes uppercase and lowercase letters
  • Reads a few picture books from memory
  • Prints own first and last name
Grade 1-2
  • Identifies and increasing number of sight words
  • Begins to decode new words independently
  • Uses a variety of reading strategies such as rereading, predicting what will happen, asking questions or using visual cues or pictures
  • Reads and retells familiar stories
  • Reads aloud with ease
  • Decides independently to use reading and writing for different purposes
  • Sounds out and represents major sounds in words when trying to spell
  • Tries to use some punctuation and capitalization
  • Identifies letters, words and sentences
  • Understands what is read
  • Creates rhyme
  • Reads grade level material fluently
  • Expresses ideas through writing
  • Prints clearly
  • Spells frequently used words correctly
  • Begins sentences with capital letters and attempts to use punctuation
  • Writes a variety of stories, journal entries, or notes

Listening

  • Repeats sentences up to nine words long
  • Follows 3 step directions without cues
  • Can listen and sustain attention for increasing lengths of time
  • Can answer WH questions after listening to a short story

Pragmatics

Child should be interacting with others in most of the following ways:
  • Uses direct requests with justification (Stop that, you're hurting me)
  • Uses words to invite others to play
  • Uses language to resolve disputes with peers
  • Can hold a basic conversation maintaining and extending topics
  • Speaks of imaginary conditions such as "What if.." and "I hope.."
  • Engages in cooperative play, such as making group decisions, assigning roles, and playing fairly
  • Asks meanings of words
  • Announces topic shifts
  • Can negotiate and compromise





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