This page provides information on the development of language skills in children in grades Kindergarten through Grade 2.  The skills listed occur in typical language development and there is a wide range of typical development (+ or - 6 months is typical).  Theses milestones are presented as a guide to inform parents of what to expect for a child between the ages of 5 and 8 years of age.  Most of the developmental norms are taken from Linguisystems Guide to Communication Milestones which provides the research base for these norms.


Grammar & Syntax Development

Child is able to use the following correctly:
  • Pronouns
  • "ing" on the ends of verbs
  • Plural -s
  • Possessive -s
  • Past Tense Verbs
  • Third Person Singular (i.e. He runs)
  • Articles (i.e. the cat, a tree)
  • Conjunction "and"
  • Helping Verbs (have/has, do/does, is/are)


  • Answers a variety of questions including yes/no, what, who, where, why, how, when and how many.
  • Asks what, where, when, how, whose and one word why questions.
  • Asks is questions


Child should have a vocabulary of 2200-7000+ words:
  • Can use many descriptive words spontaneously
  • Knows common opposites
  • Can name items in a category
  • Can name a category given items
  • Can name synonyms (small, tiny, little)
  • Can define common objects in terms of use
  • Understands opposite concepts
  • Understands left/right
  • Understands time and number concepts 
  • Can describe how things are the same and different
  • Uses adjectives for describing
  • Uses comparative and superlatives (big, bigger, biggest)
  • Understands time concepts of yesterday, today, tomorrow, first, then, next, days of the week
  • Uses adverb concepts backward and forward
  • Uses prepositions through, nearest, corner, middle
  • Names ordinal numbers such as first, second, third
  • Identifies positional concepts first, middle, last


  • Recognizes letters and letter sounds
  • Understands that print is read left to right and top to bottom
  • Retells simple stories
  • Begins to write letters and some words heard frequently
  • Begins to write stories with some readable parts with some help
  • Tries to spell words when writing
  • Understands that spoken words are made up of sounds
  • Begins to recognize sight words
  • Identifies and writes uppercase and lowercase letters
  • Reads a few picture books from memory
  • Prints own first and last name
Grade 1-2
  • Identifies and increasing number of sight words
  • Begins to decode new words independently
  • Uses a variety of reading strategies such as rereading, predicting what will happen, asking questions or using visual cues or pictures
  • Reads and retells familiar stories
  • Reads aloud with ease
  • Decides independently to use reading and writing for different purposes
  • Sounds out and represents major sounds in words when trying to spell
  • Tries to use some punctuation and capitalization
  • Identifies letters, words and sentences
  • Understands what is read
  • Creates rhyme
  • Reads grade level material fluently
  • Expresses ideas through writing
  • Prints clearly
  • Spells frequently used words correctly
  • Begins sentences with capital letters and attempts to use punctuation
  • Writes a variety of stories, journal entries, or notes


  • Repeats sentences up to nine words long
  • Follows 3 step directions without cues
  • Can listen and sustain attention for increasing lengths of time
  • Can answer WH questions after listening to a short story


Child should be interacting with others in most of the following ways:
  • Uses direct requests with justification (Stop that, you're hurting me)
  • Uses words to invite others to play
  • Uses language to resolve disputes with peers
  • Can hold a basic conversation maintaining and extending topics
  • Speaks of imaginary conditions such as "What if.." and "I hope.."
  • Engages in cooperative play, such as making group decisions, assigning roles, and playing fairly
  • Asks meanings of words
  • Announces topic shifts
  • Can negotiate and compromise

No comments:

Post a Comment